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LIFESTYLE&LONGEVITY

CHANGES IN BODY COMPOSITION WITH AGING

CHANGES IN BODY COMPOSITION WITH AGING - Dr. Paolo Queirazza MD
With aging usually, fat stores increase and fat free mass decrease, tha latter due to loss of skeletal muscle.
This is for a multifactorial origin, such as decreased physical activity, declining sex hormone action, reduced growth hormone production, reduced thermic effect of food and reduced resting matabolic rate.
Older adults have a differently distribuition of body fat that young people.
In  older, a greater proportion of body fat is intra-hepatic, intramuscular and intra-abdominal (versus subcutaneous).

OBESITY AND DESEASE

OBESITY AND DESEASE - Dr. Paolo Queirazza MD
Adipose tissue accounts for about 20% (lean) to50% (in severe obesity) of body mass and is biologically active for its secretion of many peptides and the storage or release of nutrients, such as free fatty acids.
Body fat distribution, in particular visceral fat, subcutaneous fat and ectopic fat represent a focal point for determining the risks of deseases posed by obesity.
In humans, there is a clear evidence that abdominal obesity strongly predicts mortality risks.
Fat deposition in ectopic depots, such as liver and skeletal muscle can impair insulin action and can cause lipotoxicity.
Conversely, expansion of subcutaneous fat may confer protection from metabolic derangements, limiting both sistemics lipids and the growth of visceral and ectopic fat.

ALL THE BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY to reduce abdominal fat

ALL THE BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY to reduce abdominal fat - Dr. Paolo Queirazza MD
Abdominal fat is related to the increased risk of heart and metabolic diseases.
It is known that physical activity reduces the visceral adipose tissue, which surrounds the internal organs in the abdominal cavity, but to date, some of the mechanisms involved have not been fully clarified.
Adrenaline causes this effect, in fact this hormone intervenes in the "fight or flight" response (attack or flight), and as can be  guessed from its name, this reaction has the purpose of preparing the body, in a very short time, for a intense exertion, such as physical activity.
In this chemical reaction, the fat from the fat cells and the glucose present in the liver are metabolized immediately to create a constant source of energy.
Recent studies indicate that a particular signaling protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), also plays an important role in the metabolic mechanism triggered by physical activity, which causes the reduction of visceral abdominal fat.
IL-6 plays a key role in the degradation of lipids, in fact it regulates energy metabolism and is released by the skeletal muscle during exercise, stimulating lipolysis.
So there is the possibility that interleukin-6 influences the use of fats and carbohydrates, to generate energy and reduce visceral fat mass by itself.
Bottom line, the take-home message is to always be active and keep exercising.
In fact, exercise is useful for promoting better health and we now know that training, done regularly, reduces abdominal fat mass and therefore potentially also the risk of developing cardio-metabolic diseases.